Sunday, April 12, 2015

Amanuensis Monday: Barbara THINES’ birth certificate

Since there are still so many records to present in my Luxembourg record project, I think it good policy to post two at a time whenever possible. Therefore, today will see the birth of both my great-great-grandparents, Peter STROESSER and Barbara THINES.

I have already summarized the life of my great-great grandmother Barbara THINES, but as this project is intended more as a presentation of my sources, here is her birth certificate.

This image has been trimmed from the original at FamilySearch. 


Transcription (the italicized parts were handwritten on the record):

Im Jahre tausend achthundert vier und vierzig, den sechsten Tag des
Monats Maÿ , um zwei Uhr des Nachtmittags ist,
vor uns Jean francois Laporte Burgemeister , Beamter des Civilstandes des Gemeinde
von Heltzingen , Kanton von Clerff , im Groß=Herzogthum
Lutzemburg, erschienen Michel Thines oder Theines Ackerer wohnhaft zu Heltzingen
alt dreyßig sieben Jahre, vater des Kindes
wohnhaft in dieser Gemeinde, welcher uns erklart hat dass seine ehfrau anne marie
Schmidt ohnegewerb alt dreyßig sechs Jahre wohnhaft zu Heltzingen, gestern
um eilf Uhr des vormittags ein Kind gebohren hat vom weiblichen
geschlecht und welches er uns vengezeigt hat.
und welchem er des Vornamen Barbara
geben zu wollen erklärt hat.
Welche Erklärung und Vorstellung in Gegenwart des Phillippe schmitz Ackerer,
alt vierzig drei Jahre, vun Weiler
und des Peter Thull feldhuter, alt vierzig vier
Jahre, von Hoffelt die in dieser Gemeinde wohnhaft sind, Statt gehabt haben;
und haben zeugen mit dem vater und mit mir
den gegenwärtigen Geburts=Akt, nachdem er ihnen vorher vorgelesen worden ist, mit uns unterschrieben.


Line by line Translation:

In the Year one thousand eight hundred and forty-four, the sixth Day of the
Month of May at two o'clock in the Afternoon is
before us Jean francois Laporte Mayor Officials of the Civil State of the Commune
of Hachiville , Canton of Clervaux , in the Grand-Duchy
Luxembourg, appeared Michel Thines otherwise Theines Farmer residing in Hachiville
aged thirty-seven Years, father of the Child
residing in this Commune, which to us has declared that his wife anne marie
Schmidt without occupation aged thirty-six Years residing in Hachiville, yesterday
at eleven O’clock in the before-noon had a Child of the female
gender and which he has shown before us.
and which he the First Name Barbara
has declared to want to give.
Which Statement and Presentation in the Presence of Phillippe schmitz Farmer,
aged forty three Years, of Weiler
and Peter Thull field watchman, aged forty-four
Years, of Hoffelt residing in this Commune, Instead have had;
and have testified to the father and to me
the current Birth-Deed, after having been previously read to them, with us signed.


Source:

Hachiville, Clervaux, Luxembourg, birth certificate no. 8 (1844), Barbara Thines; digital image #131, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, “Naissances 1828-1844,” FamilySearch (www.familysearch.org : accessed 27 Jun 2010).

Amanuensis Monday: Peter STROESSER’s (Harry’s dad’s) birth certificate

Ah, I feel such a sense of completion now that I have finished presenting all the Luxembourgish sources for Harry STROESSER and his siblings. But there is still much to come: now we move back a generation and look at Harry’s parents. Today it is his father, Peter STROESSER.


Peter STROESSER was the son of another Peter STROESSER and his wife Anna Maria MERTZ, the fifth child of a total of eleven. He was born on 4 June 1834 in Ettelbrück, Diekirch, Luxembourg.


This image has been trimmed from the original at FamilySearch.

 

Transcription (the italicized parts were handwritten on the record):


Im Jahre tausend acht hundert vier und dreißig, den Sechsten des
Monats Juni , um vier Uhr des Nachmittag ist,
vor uns Wilhelm hackmans , Beamter des Civilstandes der Gemeinde
von Ettelbruck , Kanton von Diekirch , in der Provinz
Lützemburg, erschienen Peter Stroesser
alt dreyzig sechs Jahre, Vater des Neugebohrnen
wohnhaft in dieser Gemeinde, welcher uns Ein Kind vor gezeigt gebohren
den Vier um dieses Monats um acht, dass des Morgens.
von seiner Ehefrau Anna maria Mertz sind
ihm vater dieses Kind männlichen Geschleicht
und welchem er den Vornamen Peter
geben zu wollen erklärt hat.
Welche Erklärung und Vorstellung in Gegenwart des Johann Herr
Sattler , alt dreyzig zwei Jahre, von Ettelbruck
und des Joseph Chomé , alt zwanzig zwei
Jahre, von Ettelbruck die in dieser Gemeinde wohnhaft sind, Statt gehabt haben;
und haben
den gegenwärtigen Geburts=Akt, nachdem er ihnen vorher vorgelesen worden ist, mit uns
unterschriben.


Line by line Translation:


In the Year one thousand eight hundred and thirty-four, the Sixth of the
Month of June at four o'clock in the Afternoon is
before us Wilhelm hackmans Officials of the Civil State of the Commune
of Ettelbruck , Canton of Diekirch , in the Province
Luxembourg, appeared Peter Stroesser
aged thirty six Years, Father of the Newborn
residing in this Commune, which to us A Child before shown born
the Four of this Month at eight, that Morning
of his Wife Anna maria Mertz is
his father this Child male Gendered
and which he the First Name Peter
has declared to want to give.
Which Statement and Presentation in the Presence of Johann Herr
Saddler , aged thirty two Years, of Ettelbruck
and Joseph Chomé , aged twenty two
Years, of Ettelbruck residing in this Commune, Instead have had;
and have
the current Birth-Deed, after having been previously read to them, with us
signed





Obviously, the phrasing of the German in this certificate has left me puzzled for an elegant translation, but I believe the meaning is still comprehensible.


Source:


Ettelbrück, Diekirch, Luxembourg, birth certificate no. 61 (1834), Peter Stroesser; digital image #1295 of 1477, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, “Naissances 1797-1804 Naissances, mariages, décès 1804-1805 Naissances 1805-1838,” FamilySearch (www.familysearch.org : accessed 19 Oct 2014). 

Sunday, April 5, 2015

Amanuensis Monday: Clara STROESSER’s birth certificate

It was nearly a year after the passing of Catharina STROESSER before my great-great grandmother Barbara THINES gave birth to her eighth and final child, Clara. 

This image has been trimmed from the original at FamilySearch.

Transcription (the italicized parts were handwritten on the record):

Im Jahre tausend acht hundert fünf und achtzig, den neunten
des Monats Januar um sechs Uhr Nach mittags ist vor Uns
Mathius Probst, delegirten Shöffen Beamten des Civilstandes
der Gemeinde folscheid , im Kanton Redingen , Groß=
herzogthum Luxemburg, erschienen Peter Streusser
alt vierzig acht Jahre Eisenhändler
wohnhaft zu Schweidelbruch , welcher Uns ein Kind weiblichen
Geschlechts vorgestellt hat, geboren Schweidelbruch gestern
um Zehn Uhr Nach mittags, im Hause Nr. ----- Gasse,
erzeugt von Ihre Comparenten und seine Ehegattin Barbara Thinnes,
alt dreizig acht Jahre, ohne Stand, wohnhaft im selben Orte
und welchem er den Vornamen Clara
geben zu wollen erklärt hat.
Diese Erklärung und Vorstellung sind geschehen in Gegenwart des Nicolas Wilmes
alt fünfzig drei , alt dreizig acht [unintelligible] Jahre Straßenwärter
wohnhaft zu Bondorf und des Johann Peter Stephany
alt dreizig neun Jahre Notar Gehilfe
wohnhaft zu Rambruch und haben die Comparenten diese
Urkunde, nachdem sie ihnen vorgelesen worden, mit Uns unterschrieben.

Line by line Translation:

In the Year one thousand eight hundred and eighty-five, the ninth
of the Month of January at six o'clock After noon is before Us
Mathius Probst, delegate Alderman Officials of the Civil State
of the Commune of folscheid , in the Canton Redange , Grand-
duchy of Luxembourg, appeared Peter Streusser
aged forty-eight Years Iron Merchant
residing in Schweidelbruch , which to us a child of the female
Gender has presented, born in Schweidelbrouch yesterday
at Ten O’clock After noon, in House No. ----- Street,
begat by The Appearing Party and his Lawful Wife Barbara Thinnes,
aged thirty-eight Years, without Occupation, residing in same Place
and which he the First Name Clara
has declared to want to give.
This Statement and Presentation are done in the Presence Nicolas Wilmes
aged fifty-three , aged thirty-eight [unintelligible] Years, Street Warder
residing in Bondorf and Johann Peter Stephany
aged thirty-nine Years Assistant Notary
residing in Rambrouch and have the Appearing Parties this
Deed, having been read to them, with us signed.


There is an area of confusion in the witnesses on this document: Nicolas WILMES seems to be assigned two ages, and the word which might explain it all is squished so tightly between “dreizig acht” and “Jahre” that I am unable to make it out. If anyone has any insight into this confusion, I would love to hear it!

With the birth of Clara STROESSER, the STROESSER household consisted of two parents: Peter STROESSER and Barbara THINES; and six living children: Michel, age 11; Baltasar, age 9; Anna, age 8; my great-grandfather Harry, age 6; Johann-Nicolas, age 4 (but who would be 5 the following day); and baby Clara.

Later, after the death of their parents, several of these children would make the long journey across the Atlantic to the New World. According to family lore, though I have not yet been able to find the ship manifest, Clara traveled with her brother, my great-grandfather, Harry STROESSER to the United States. Given the hint in the manifest of the S.S. Finland, which carried their brother Nicolas in 1907, and which I mentioned in my post on hisbirth certificate, I have been able to uncover some evidence that Clara, Harry, and Nicolas first settled in Estherville, Emmet, Iowa. Harry and Clara, at least, were both residing there in 1904.

Again according to family lore, Harry disliked Clara’s husband and moved to Omaha, Nebraska when they were married. What little evidence I have found supports this: Clara appeared in the 1905 Iowa state census and was married to Nicholas FANK that same year. I was unable to find Harry in that census, so he had likely already departed.

I have added a template for an 1885 birth certificate to the collection.

Sources:

1905 Iowa state census, Emmet, Iowa, population schedule, Estherville Ward 2, p. 371 (population schedule card), Clara Strosser; digital images, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, FamilySearch (www.familysearch.org : accessed 25 Feb 2015); citing GS Film Number: 001430397, Digital Folder Number: 007486245, Image Number: 01524; State Historical Department, Des Moines; FHL microfilm 1,430,397.

FamilySearch, “Iowa, County Marriages, 1838-1934,” database, FamilySearch (www.familysearch.org : accessed 25 Feb 2015), entry for Nick Fank and Clara Strasser’s 1905 marriage; citing Estherville, Emmet, Iowa, United States, county courthouses, Iowa.

Folschette, Luxembourg, birth certificate no. 4 (1885), Clara Streusser; digital image #995 of 1489, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, “Naissances 1821-1890 Mariages 1800-1823, 1797-1830,” FamilySearch (www.familysearch.org : accessed 21 Jul 2010).

Janet M. Young, “Estherville City Directory, 1904: Estherville, Iowa,” database, Emmet County, Iowa: IAGenWeb (http://iagenweb.org/emmet/1904dir.html : accessed 25 Feb 2015), entry for Clara Strosser; Compliments of The Estherville Democrat, October 1904.

Janet M. Young, “Estherville City Directory, 1904: Estherville, Iowa,” database, Emmet County, Iowa: IAGenWeb (http://iagenweb.org/emmet/1904dir.html : accessed 25 Feb 2015), entry for Henry Strosser; Compliments of The Estherville Democrat, October 1904.

Sunday, March 22, 2015

Amanuensis Monday: Catharina STROESSER’s death certificate


Despite all the high hopes the STROESSER family might have had upon the birth of their daughter Catharina so shortly after the death of little Johann, Catharina lived only a short time as well. She passed away on 14 Feb 1884, just over a month after her first birthday.

This image has been trimmed from the original at FamilySearch.


Transcription (the italicized parts were handwritten on the record):

Im Jahre tausend acht hundert vier und achtzig, den vierzehnten
des Monats februar um acht Uhr Vor mittags sind vor Uns
Johann Eduard Brasesel, Bürgermeister, Beamten des Civilstandes
der Gemeinde Folscheid , im Kanton Redingen Groß=
herzogthum Luxemburg, erschienen Peter Stroesser,
alt vierzig sechs Jahre Eisenhändler
wohnhaft zu Schwiedelbruch, Vater des Vestorbenen
und Johann Peter Stephany , alt dreiszig acht Jahre
Notar-Gehilfe , wohnhaft zu Rambruch
Diese haben Uns erklärt, daß Catharina Stroesser
alt dreizehn Monate Jahre, ohne Stand
geboren zu Schwiedelbruch , wohnhaft zu selben
Schwiedelbrouch, Zochter des ersten Comparenten und seiner Ehegattin
Barbara Thinnes, alt dreiszig sechs Jahre, ohne Stand, wohnhaft
im selben Orte
verschieden ist gestern um Zwei Uhr Nach mittags,
zu geneltem Schwiedelbruch
und haben beide Anzeiger gegenwärtige Urkunde, nachdem sie ihnen vorgelesen worden,
mit Uns unterschrieben.

Line by line Translation:

In the Year one thousand eight hundred eighty-four, the fourteenth
of the Month of february at eight o’clock Before noon have before Us
Johann Eduard Brassel, Burgermeister, Officials of the Civil State
of the Commune of Folschette , in the Canton Redange Grand-
duchy of Luxembourg, appeared Peter Stroesser,
aged forty six Years Blacksmith
residing in Schwiedelbrouch, Father of the Deceased
and Johann Peter Stephany , aged thirty eight Years
Notary-Assistant , residing in Rambrouch
This has been declared to Us, that Catharina Stroesser
aged thirteen Months Years, without Occupation
born in Schwiedelbrouch , residing in same
Schwiedelbrouch, Daughter of the first Appearing Party and his Wife
Barbara Thinnes, aged thirty six Years, without Occupation, residing
in same Place
deceased is yesterday at Two o’clock After noon,
in same Schwiedelbrouch
and have both Informants the present deed, having been read to them,
with Us signed.

There, again, is that Notar-Gehilfe, but I am growing more certain about my translation of Notary-Assistant.


Source:

Folschette, Redange, Luxembourg, death certificate no. 4 (1884), Catharina Stroesser; digital image #67 of 142, Chuch of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, “Décès 1879-1889,” FamilySearch (www.familysearch.org : accessed 21 Nov 2014).

Monday, March 16, 2015

Amanuensis Monday: Catharina STROESSER’s birth certificate

When my great-grandfather Harry STROESSER’s brother, little 18-month old Johann STROESSER, passed away on 23 Nov 1882, his mother Barbara THINES must have been pregnant. What a blow to any parent is the death of a child, but how much more distressing must it be to a pregnant woman!

The expected child arrived less than two months after the death of its brother, on 9 Jan 1883. This child was a girl, christened Catharina.

This image has been trimmed from the original at FamilySearch. 


Transcription (the italicized parts were handwritten on the record):


Im Jahre tausend acht hundert drei und achtzig, den neunten
des Monats Januar um sieben Uhr Nach mittags ist vor Uns
Johann Eduard Brassel, Bürgermeister, Beamten des Civilstandes
der Gemeinde folscheid , im Kanton Redingen , Gross=
herzogthum Luxemburg, erschienen Peter Stroesser,
alt vierzig sieben Jahre Eisenhándler
wohnhaft zu Schwiedelbruch , welcher Uns ein Kind weiblichen
Geschlechts vorgestellt hat, geboren zu Schweidelbruch heute
um sechs Uhr Nach mittags, im Hause Nr. -- Gasse,
erzeugt von Zie Comparenten und seiner Ehegattin Barbara Thinnes,
alt dreiszig sieben Jahre, ohne Stand, wohnhaft in selben Orte
und welchem er den Vornamen Catharina
geben zu wollen erklärt hat.
Diese Erklärung und Vorstellung sind geschehen in Gegenwart des Johann Punsch
-- alt dreiszig acht Jahre Tag löhner
wohnhaft zu Schwiedelbruch und des Johann Peter Stephany
-- alt dreiszig acht Jahre Notar=Gehilfe
wohnhaft zu Rambruch und haben die Comparenten diese
Urkunde, nachdem sie ihnen vorgelesen worden, mit Uns unterschrieben.


Line by line Translation:


In the Year one thousand eight hundred and eighty-three, the ninth
of the Month of January at seven o'clock After noon is before Us
Johann Eduard Brassel, Burgermeister, Officials of the Civil State
of the Commune of folscheid , in the Canton Redange , Grand-
duchy of Luxembourg, appeared Peter Stroesser,
aged forty-seven Years Ironmonger
residing in Schwiedelbruch , which to us a child of the female
Gender has presented, born in Schweidelbruch today
at six O’clock After noon, in House No. -- Street,
begat by The Appearing Party and his Wife Barbara Thinnes,
aged thirty-seven Years, without Position, residing in the same place
and which her the First Name Catharina
has declared to want to give.
This Statement and Presentation are done in the Presence of Johann Punsch
-- aged thirty-eight Years, Day laborer
residing in Schwiedelbruch and Johann Peter Stephany
-- aged thirty-eight Years Notary-Assistant
residing in Rambrouch and have the Appearing Parties this
Deed, having been read to them, with us signed.

You may notice a familiar witness on Catharina’s birth certificate. Johann Peter Stephany had also appeared as a witness on the death certificate of little Johann. Although I have not determined the word following “Notar” beyond the shadow of a doubt, I feel much more confident this week in declaring it to be “Gehilfe” than I did last week in calling it “Gesuche.”

Source:

Folschette, Luxembourg, birth certificate no. 3 (1883), Catharina Stroesser; digital image #966 of 1489, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, "Naissances 1821-1890 Mariages 1800-1823, 1797-1830," FamilySearch (www.familysearch.org : accessed 21 Jul 2010).

Saturday, March 14, 2015

Brosius Family in Chautauqua County, 1875-1880


Howard county was gone. It had lately vanished into the mists of memory, and the twin counties of Elk and Chautauqua filled its vacancy. So without the trouble of actually moving, the Brosius family found their address had changed from Howard to Chautauqua county. How much of an effect the change in the civil government had upon John S. Brosius and his wife Frances is an open question. Little is known about this period in their lives. They apparently remained in their home in Belleville Township for some time, and were probably trying to start a family. Sadly, it would appear that their young marriage was beset by tragedy. John’s obituary mentions “[t]hree boys and one girl... born to this marriage,” and the known birth dates of two of these children suggest the period of 1875-1879 for the births of the first boy and the girl (“John Brosius Dead”). However, neither of those two children appear in the 1880 census. They must have died very young. Unfortunately, no documentation for the births and deaths of these children has yet been found.

Even less is known about John’s sister Rebecca during this period. During the 1875 Kansas census, she evidently was still dwelling in Belleville Township, but in the household of P. N. Williams. No explanation for this residence is offered within the census; it does not state her relationship to the head of the household, nor is an occupation ascribed to her. The clearest clue is entirely circumstantial: she is the last named member of the household, after a W. Henderson, whose occupation is given as “Farming.” In general, households on a census record are sorted with the family first and then any servants or employees. Although not directly stated, W. Henderson are probably the farmhand and the domestic servant, respectively.

John and Rebecca’s stepfather John Rodgers was also residing in Belleville Township. His wife, John and Rebecca’s mother, Margrette, had passed away in 1873, leaving him with three children in a relatively wild country. The operations of the James and Younger brothers, still famous for their outlawry, were sometimes uncomfortably nearby. Even closer to home, in Chautauqua county itself, something as simple as a quarrel concerning a water bucket could result in one brother murdering another (Cutler). Even without taking these dangers into consideration (and as a man, John Rodgers may have felt fully capable of protecting his children from such dangers), men at that time were seldom educated in child-rearing. John Rodgers may very well have wished for a companion to take over his duties in this area.

His choice fell upon a young woman named Ellen Edwards, fifteen years his junior, and possibly the daughter of his neighbor Isaac Edwards. Presumably after a suitable period of courtship, the wedding took place on 24 June 1877. So at the age of twenty years, Ellen found herself stepmother to three children, ages twelve, eight, and four.

This image has been trimmed from the original at FamilySearch.


Through all the joys and sorrows of the lives of the Brosius and Rodgers families, they were no doubt aware of the decreasing importance of the nearby city of Peru. Not much farther away from their homes, but to the northwest instead of the east, another city’s star was rising. At the formation of Chautauqua county, the hitherto miniscule town of Sedan was named the county seat, probably on account of its position near the geographical center of the county. At the time of its appointment, it contained only “a store, blacksmith shop, a district school building and one or two residences,” but with its new-found importance, Sedan quickly became a center of building and commerce (Cutler). In 1878, John S. Brosius and his wife Frances took up residence there, perhaps because the town provided ample employment and experience for anyone who wished to start a career in carpentry. Hitherto a farmer, John was embarking on his vocation as a carpenter.

As young John began his new business, his stepfather began his own new family. On 23 Sept 1878, the former Ellen Edwards, now Ellen Rodgers, became mother to a daughter of her own. The baby, named Mary Ellen Rodgers, bore no blood relationship to John S. Brosius, of course, but she was certainly known to him. There is ample evidence that he kept up relations with his half-siblings, and it is more than likely that these relations extended to his step-siblings as well.

As for his full sister Rebecca, it is possible that she made a trip back to her birthplace in Crawford county, Pennsylvania. Whether she made an appearance in person or not, some business was conducted on her behalf there. She, alone of the three Brosius children, had retained ownership of her inherited land in South Shenango Township. Being still a minor, of about seventeen years of age at the time, it was requisite that her guardian, David McKinley, handle her legal affairs. On 23 Mar 1878 he petitioned the court for permission to sell her land. This permission was granted, and on 25 Apr 1878 the land became the possession of Henry Myers for a consideration of $400.

But by the time the census was taken in 1880, she had returned (if she had ever left) to Kansas, and was now working as a domestic servant in the household of Samuel D. Thomason. She would almost certainly have met the youngest arrivals in her extended family: her nephew Clarence, born to John and Frances Brosius in about 1879, and her stepsister Liddia Margaret, born to John and Ellen Rodgers on 11 Mar 1880.

Like her brother John, she now made her home in Sedan. She appears three pages away from his household in the population schedule, which in a bustling young city like Sedan may not have implied much distance. Of course, one would need to see a plot map in order to make an accurate judgment on that head.

John Brosius’ household contains, as expected, himself, Frances, and Clarence, but there is also an unexplained fourth person. His name is Wesley Ewing, age 17, and his occupation is described as “Works on Livery Stable.” Whether he is any sort of relation to either John or Frances, or whether he is a boarder or a guest, is not recorded.

The household of John Rodgers bears no such surprises. They still remained in Belleville Township, and appear exactly as would be predicted, with John, his wife, and five children.



Citations and Selected Sources


1875 Kansas State Census, Howard, Kansas, population schedule, Belleville Twp, p. 10, dwelling 76, family 76, line 9, Rebecca Brosius; digital images, Ancestry, Ancestry (ancestry.com : accessed 1 Feb 2014); citing Roll: ks1875_3, 1875 Kansas State Census, Microfilm reels K-1 – K-20, Kansas State Historical Society.

1875 Kansas State Census, Howard, Kansas, population schedule, Belleville Twp, p. 14, dwelling 114, family 114, line 20-23, Household of John Rodgers; digital images, Ancestry, Ancestry (ancestry.com : accessed 8 Dec 2013); citing Roll: ks1875_3, 1875 Kansas State Census, Microfilm reels K-1 – K-20, Kansas State Historical Society.

1875 Kansas State Census, Howard, Kansas, population schedule, Belleville, p. 14, dwelling 117, family 117, line 30-31, Household of John Brosius; digital images, Ancestry, Ancestry (ancestry.com : accessed 8 Dec 2013); citing Roll: ks1875_3, 1875 Kansas State Census, Microfilm reels K-1 – K-20, Kansas State Historical Society.

1880 U.S. census, Chautauqua, Kansas, population schedule, Belleville Township, enumeration district (ED) 66, p. 293 (stamped), dwelling 4, family 4, household of John Rodgers; digital images, Ancestry (ancestry.com : accessed 11 Nov 2006); citing National Archives and Records Administration microfilm T9, roll 375.

1880 U.S. census, Chautauqua, Kansas, population schedule, Sedan, enumeration district (ED) 15, p. 31, dwelling 290, family 298, Rebecca Brosius; digital images, Ancestry (ancestry.com : accessed 11 Nov 2006); citing National Archives and Records Administration microfilm T9, roll 375.

1880 U.S. census, Chautauqua, Kansas, population schedule, Sedan, enumeration district (ED) 75, p. 28, dwelling 260, family 267, household of John Brosius; digital images, Ancestry (ancestry.com : accessed 22 Oct 2006); citing National Archives and Records Administration microfilm T9, roll 375.

Chautauqua, Kansas, Marriage records, 1875-1883, v. B: 79, Rodgers-Edwards, 24 June 1877; digital image #59 of 238, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, FamilySearch (www.familysearch.org : accessed 21 Jan 2014).

Crawford, Pennsylvania, Orphans’ Court Record 753, No. 17: Petition of David McKinley Guardian of Rebecca Brosius for leave to sell real estate, April Term 1878; Crawford County Office of the Clerk of Courts, Meadville. Xerox copy sent to author by Gloria Brosius.

Cutler, William G. “Chautauqua County.” History of the State of Kansas. Chicago: A. T. Andreas, 1883. Page numbers not indicated in transcription. Transcribed by Dwayne Crandall, Carol Crandall, and Bonnie Bunce in Kansas Collection Books. The Kansas Collection, April 1999. Web. Accessed 5 Nov 2006.

Find A Grave, “Find A Grave,” database and images, Find A Grave (www.findagrave.com : accessed 28 Aug 2014); Mary Ellen Cobb (Memorial #24270422); Record added 30 Jan 2008 by Del Huggins.

John Brosius Dead,” (Sedan) Sedan Times-Star, 22 Apr 1920, p. 1, col. 2. Xerox copy sent to the author by Gloria Brosius.

State of California Department of Health Services, Center for Health Statistics, “California, Death Index, 1940-1997,” database, Ancestry (www.ancestry.com : accessed 14 Mar 2015), entry for Lydia Margaret Hall’s 1953 death.